Welcome to the discussion forum of Ða Engliscan Gesiðas for all matters relating to the history, language and culture of Anglo-Saxon England. I hope it will provide a useful source of information, stimulate research, and be of real help. Ða Engliscan Gesiðas (The English Companions) maintains a strictly neutral line on all modern and current political and religious matters and it does not follow any particular interpretation of history. Transgression of this Rule will not be tolerated. Any posts which are perceived as breaking this Rule will be deleted with immediate effect without explanation.

Recent Posts

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General Discussion / Re: After 1066
« Last post by peter on August 05, 2022, 08:57:46 PM »
 Or... how many English exiles simply changed their names and fought for William, some of the 'De's' like the De Warenne line in my area can be traced back, but many of the others have very vague bloodlines. For William to hold a whole nation successfully with the amount of troops available to him must surely have meant that a number of Englishmen were members of the Norman army and took over their old enemies, the Godwines', lands (?). I'm too old to trudge round castles in Normandy nowadays but some years ago when I did visit many castles in the area the names mentioned in Domesday rarely cropped up in the Norman castle histories. Perhaps a more youthful Gesithas member might fancy a tour of family discovery in the Normandy region and prove this theory to be totally incorrect!
General Discussion / Re: After 1066
« Last post by Eanflaed on August 05, 2022, 12:40:08 PM »
I think (therefore I’m replying with thoughts rather than facts!) many of them went off to fight for the Byzantine emperor; there was a “little England” on the Crimea if I remember rightly. Sometimes in Domesday Book you find the name of the 1066 owner of an estate down as a tenant of the new Norman one in 1086. But I imagine most of them were forced to become vassals of the Norman landowners, working as peasants on they that was previously theirs as lords.
General Discussion / After 1066
« Last post by Barry on August 04, 2022, 08:38:36 PM »
By 1086, according to the Doomsday Book, almost all the English landowners had been replaced by Norman ones, so what happened to them?   Were they utterly ruined and left the area with their family or did they become stewards to the estates instead , working for a Norman boss?    Any thoughts  or facts welcome.  Many thanks
« Last post by David on August 01, 2022, 03:58:25 PM »
The 2023 calendars have arrived and cost £6 plus postage.
The postage for the UK is £3.35 for 1 or 2 calendars. So, with postage, 1 calendar would cost £9.35 and 2 calendars would cost £15.35. There are 6 different postal rates for countries outside the UK so please let me know where you live so I can tell you the correct postage. You can buy calendars from Jenny Ashby or David Hinch.
If you do not know our calendars you can see the earlier ones at   [size=0pt]https://www.tha-engliscan-gesithas.org.uk/about-the-english-companions/calendars-from-previous-years/[/size]   
General Discussion / Re: Gender roles
« Last post by Wayne Aelfhere on August 01, 2022, 02:19:37 PM »
Ah yes, I see. So at least some full-time occupations were performed by both/either gender. Very interesting. Thanks
General Discussion / Re: The Area of a Hide
« Last post by Jayson on July 30, 2022, 03:27:03 PM »
---many thanks, David, I hadn't realised the post had gone through like that!   Wonder why it did?

Anglo-Saxon Discussion / Tattoos or body painting
« Last post by sam on July 30, 2022, 09:47:02 AM »
While the Pre-roman inhabitants of Britain of referred to as woad-painted men, and Ibn Fadlan describes Scandinavian warriors he met as heavily tattooed, I've yet to see any mention of Anglo-Saxon tattoos. I was wondering whether anyone knows of any sources that inform us if the Anglo-Saxons had tattoos, or what possibly they may have been.   
General Discussion / Re: Gender roles
« Last post by Phyllis on July 30, 2022, 08:23:32 AM »
I'm assuming (because going away and reading it is, like, So Much Effort) it's from the feminine "agent nouns"? For example bæcere is a male baker and bæcestre is a female one. We currently have a bocestre of Wiðowinde too. So perhaps it comes from a by-name, which was used in the period - Æþelread Unrede, Eadric Streona, Wulfnoð Cild etc (admittedly late attestations)?
General Discussion / Re: Tolkien
« Last post by Phyllis on July 30, 2022, 08:18:01 AM »
Has anyone else a favourite scene in The Lord of the Rings?

Mine is: "So Theoden and Eowyn came to the City of Gondor, and all who saw them bared their heads and bowed; and they passed through the ash and fume of the burned circle, and went on and up along the streets of stone."

so many! But the arrival  of the Rohirrim at Pelennor Fields gets me every single time, it's so uplifting:

For morning came, morning and a wind from the sea; and darkness was removed, and the hosts of Mordor wailed, and terror took them, and they fled, and died, and the hoofs of wrath rode over them. And then all the host of Rohan burst into song, and they sang as they slew, for the joy of battle was on them, and the sound of their singing that was fair and terrible came even to the City.
General Discussion / Re: The Area of a Hide
« Last post by David on July 29, 2022, 09:13:13 AM »
This is what Jasons post says

https://mercedesrochelle.com › wordpress › ?p=947What was an Anglo-Saxon Hide? - Historical Britain BlogThe hide was also a fiscal unit as well as military. When Danegeld was raised, the assessment was customarily 2 shillings per hide regardless of its size. Also, there might be additional requirements. According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, in 1008 "Every 300 hides should provide a large warship, every ten hides should produce a cutter, and ...MacbethGeneral Topicshttps://www.sizes.com › units › hide.htmWhat is the unit called a hide? - SizesSo four hides, it is said, or 640 acres, made a knight's fee. And that when a knight's fee was taxed at, or paid 40s. then a yard-land of forty acres paid 2s. 6d., half a yard-land 15d., a ferundel 7½ d. and an acre ¾. And so 640 acres of land made on great knight's fee, which paid for a relief 100s.https://en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Hide_(unit)Hide (unit) - WikipediaIt was traditionally taken to be 120 acres (49 hectares), but was in fact a measure of value and tax assessment, including obligations for food-rent ( feorm ), maintenance and repair of bridges and fortifications, manpower for the army ( fyrd ), and (eventually) the geld land tax.https://www.britannica.com › topic › hide-English-land-unithide | English land unit | Britannicahide, in early English history, the land necessary to support a free peasant family. In the 12th and 13th centuries, the hide commonly appeared as 120 acres (50 hectares) of arable land, but it probably represented a much smaller holding before 1066. It was the basis of the earliest taxation and the basis for mustering the primitive English militia, the fyrd. By the end of the Anglo-Saxon ...
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